Alzheimer's, prions and sewage sludge


TO THE US FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION

From Helane Shields, PO Box 1133, Alton, NH 03809 hshields@tds.net
September 4, 2015

PETITION

ADDENDA – ALZHEIMER’S – A TRANSMISSIBLE PRION DISEASE: to Petition to FDA to reverse its policy
promoting spreading of prion infected sludge on food crops.

Page 5 of Petition – text to be substituted:
“The brain diseases caused by prions include Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, amyotrophic
lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, and other varied disorders known collectively as the
frontotemporal dementias, Prusiner said. Among those, he said, are the dementias suffered by some
contact sport athletes, as well as "soldiers from the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.

The findings, along with his account of discoveries he and other researchers have made over years of
work, appear this week in the journal Science and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

http://www.sfgate.com/health/article/UCSF-links-key-dementia-protein-brain-traumas-3654204.php
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http://www.sciencemag.org/content/349/6248/1255555.abstract?sid=3c7969f1- b6b1-485f-8246-b32c19461267

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the academic journal of the American Association
for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals. Science 7 August
2015: Vol. 349 no. 6248 DOI: 10.1126/science.1255555 Review Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases: The
prion concept in relation to assembled Aβ, tau, and α- synuclein

1.        Michel Goedert

+ Author Affiliations 1. Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Medical Research Council, Francis Crick Avenue,
Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. * 1. ↵ Corresponding author. E-mail: mg@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk “OUTLOOK “

The prion concept appears to apply to all human neurodegenerative diseases with abnormal protein
assemblies, including AD and PD. This has brought unity to the field and changed the way we think about
these diseases.

“A pathological pathway leading from soluble proteins to insoluble filaments.

This pathway is at the heart of human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s
diseases. The formation of pathological seeds is a rare and energetically unfavourable event,

which requires exposure of backbone amide groups and a high protein concentration. Once a seed has
formed, single molecules can change shape and join the growing aggregates. Seed addition induces rapid
assembly of the soluble protein. Fragmentation generates new seeds, accelerating the formation of
aggregates. Filaments represent the endpoints of aggregation. They are typically unbranched, with a
diameter of ~10 nm, and can be several micrometers long. This drawing is not to scale. [Adapted from S. K.
Fritschi et al., in Proteopathic Seeds and Neurodegenerative Diseases, M. Jucker, Y. Christen Eds.
(Springer, Berlin, 2013), pp. 61–69]. “
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ALZHEIMER’S = transmissible – (possibly infectious) Dr. John Collinge, UK

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/alzheimers-disease- may-be-
infectious-study-suggests-10493032.html

Alzheimer's disease may be infectious, study suggests Disturbing possibility raises questions about certain
surgical procedures

Excerpts:

“The “seeds” of Alzheimer’s disease may be transmitted from one person to another during certain medical
procedures, scientists have found.

A study into people who died of a separate kind of brain disease after receiving injections of human
growth hormone suggests that
Alzheimer’s may also be a transmissible disease.

The findings have raised questions about the safety of some medical procedures, possibly including blood
transfusions and invasive dental treatment, which may involve the transfer of contaminated tissues or
surgical equipment.

The investigation has shown for the first time in humans that Alzheimer’s disease may be a transmissible
infection which could be inadvertently passed between people.

"It may be possible to transmit Alzheimer's disease from one person to another, according to a study
published Wednesday in Nature."

"What we need to consider is that in addition to there being sporadic Alzheimer's disease and inherited or
familial Alzheimer's disease, there could also be acquired forms of Alzheimer's disease," said lead scientist
Professor John Collinge, director of the Medical Research Council Prion Unit at UCL.”
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Other articles, same subject – Alzheimer’s transmissible – possibly infectious, contagious

http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2015/09/09/438839277/brain-tissue-transplants-may- have-spread-
alzheimers-protein

“The importance of the autopsy study is its finding that Alzheimer's has a lot in common with so-called prion
diseases. They include Creutzfeldt-Jakob in people, the very similar mad cow disease in cattle, and scrapie
in sheep and goats, Walker says. Prion diseases and Alzheimer's both appear to involve rogue proteins
that fold into abnormal shapes and then form toxic clusters or seeds, he says. “

http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/alzheimers-like-markers-linked-human-growth-hormone- treatments/

People have implicated prions in Alzheimer’s disease since the 1970s, given that age- related dementia
disorder is also linked to misfolded proteins, along with cell death and connection loss in the brain.
Moreover, mice and marmosets develop amyloid plaques when injected with brain fluid containing amyloid-
beta proteins.
This new study provides the first hint that a similar transmission event could occur in humans. “

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11853619/Alzheimers-disease-may-be- caught-
through-medical-accidents.html

Alzheimer's disease may be caught through medical accidents

University College London study finds it is theoretically possible to become infected through blood
transfusion, brain surgery or root canal operation

“What we need to consider is that in addition to there being sporadic Alzheimer's disease and inherited or
familial Alzheimer's disease, there could also be acquired forms of Alzheimer's disease," said lead scientist
Professor John Collinge, director of the Medical Research Council Prion Unit at UCL.”